1. Leila Algavi, Irina Volkova, George Kovalev, Grigory Budtsov
Qanon as a Transmedia Storytelling
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 3-9.
Abstract: The communicative nature of QAnon's most ambitious contemporary conspiracy theory is the focus of this study. According to some preliminary speculation, QAnon's incredible popularity lies in its superficial resemblance to an alternate reality game and a live-action role-playing game. This is true, but the authors present a system of arguments proving that QAnon is primarily a transmedia project with all its inherent properties. Analysis of the QAnon open narrative system reveals the mechanisms of its work and sheds light on its prospects. The question of the spontaneity or purposefulness of the QAnon project remains unclear, the authors left it out of the equation, since this is not so much a scientific problem as a socio-political one. The authors preface their analysis with a reflection on conspiracy theory, which is essential for understanding the phenomenon under study. It is emphasised that there is a close link between conspiracy thinking and other ways of making sense of reality, in the humanities and social sciences it is traditional to identify the hidden motives behind what is happening. The content of conspiracy narratives usually has predictable elements. QAnon conspiracy theory has been found to follow all seven principles of transmedia narrative.
Grammar of Media and Features of the New Normativity
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 10-16.
Abstract: The article deals with new phenomena in grammar (first of all morphology), which in many ways change the ideas of normativity in this area, and these new phenomena are formed and replicated by modern media. These are the expansion of the boundaries of graduality, changes in the configuration of generic oppositions of anthroponyms, a new syntagmatics of nouns with collective semantics, deepening the pluralization of abstract nouns, eliminating lacunae connected with the state category words. These processes confirm that modern normativity is largely created in the medial space (and not within the framework of artistic and fictional discourse, as it traditionally happened). In the article the authors focus on those changes in grammatical morphological forms that, in their opinion, modify the norm and increase the new normativity features. According to this article idea a number of changes in grammatical forms and categories in the media are significant not only within the relevant contexts, but also it fixes significant changes in the norm itself. Based on this, the authors propose a descriptive and analytical interpretation of grammatical forms used in modern media. Philological hermeneutics with an emphasis on explanation as well as the linguopragmatic analysis were used to explain grammatical processes. The studied “transformations” of norms in media are connected not with damage to the language. On the contrary, they may indicate a natural compensation of systemic lacunae, the realization of new system potencies, which means that they fully correspond to ecological thinking.
University Students’ Readiness for Teaching Media Competence
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 17-23.
Abstract: The article presents some actual experience of introducing media education in modern higher education. The authors present a review of current Russian and foreign publications that consider media education as an important factor in the professional training of present-day university graduates.
The article also outlines the main directions for integrating media education in extracurricular activities of contemporary university students, including a wide range of creative and educational activities. All of them are aimed at expanding university students’ knowledge about the world of media culture, actualizing their interest in media creation and media education projects. Curricular and extracurricular forms of media education are focused on solving the major task of promoting media competence among young people, which is one of the key vectors for successful exploration of the today’s information field, the ability to think analytically, master the argument, strengthen the evidence base of one’s own reasoning, include creative amateur media production.
Theoretical Articles by Film Critic Leonid Kozlov (1933−2006) in the Cinema Art Journal
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 24-33.
Abstract: This article reveals the theoretical approaches of the film scientist, film historian and film critic Leonid Kozlov (1933−2006), which are reflected in his articles published in the Cinema Art journal. Professional activity of L.K. Kozlov is associated with a deep analysis of the problems of the history of cinema, the methodology of film studies, the study of aesthetics and the theory of cinematography. He devoted his main theoretical works on cinematographic issues mainly to professional issues of film studies and film dramaturgy.
As a result of the content analysis of the main theoretical articles of the film scientist L.K. Kozlov, published in the Cinema Art journal from 1956 to 1985, we came to the following conclusions: the author devoted his main theoretical works mainly to professional issues of film studies and film dramaturgy; the theoretical articles of the author are written at a high professional level, replete with cinematic terms, and are not devoid of expressive artistic imagery; the stated theoretical concepts are confirmed by a clear logic of presentation and consistent argumentation based on primary sources; the author's position and the author's attitude to the subject of research are clearly seen in the general content and generalizing conclusions; in structural terms, his articles are usually in a scientific style, have a clear structure and large volume; as a film critic of the leading professional Soviet journal on cinematography, broadcasting the ideology of the cinema of the ruling communist party, the author often entered into polemics with foreign film critics on the theory and history of cinematography, defending the value of Soviet cinematography; the author had a relatively wide range of scientific interests: critical articles on the theory and history of Soviet and foreign cinematography, reviews of Soviet and foreign films, reviews of works by other authors on the subject of cinematography, bibliography, discussions.
5. Ahmed Lawal Gusau, Khor Mi Nee, Adamkolo Mohammed Ibrahim
Organisational Reputation and Innovation in the Higher Education Industry: A Correlation Study based on the RepTrakTM Model in the Context of Corporate Communication
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 34-50.
Abstract: Although there is ample literature in organisational innovation, not enough attention is accorded to the correlation between innovation and corporate reputation in the context of corporate communication in the higher education industry. This study was prompted by the urge to close this research gap. Three hundred and thirty-one (331) international, or foreign students from the Infrastructure University of Kuala Lumpur (IUKL), Malaysia were recruited as respondents through a simple random sampling technique who completed a 21-item questionnaire with a very high reliability (α = 0.92). Only one correlation hypothesis was tested which was formulated on the innovation dimension of the RepTrackTM model and it was accepted. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 23, and a moderate correlation (Person’s p = 0.00, r = 0.51) was found between innovation and reputation. In addition, reputation is expressed as high esteem, love, respect, and trust. The study concludes that a university is more likely to be held in high regard when it has strong drive towards innovation, both managerial and technological. The article recommends that for IUKL’s reputation to keep soring locally and internationally, it should double its commitment to adopt both managerial and technical innovative strategies. Future research should explore the differential influence of managerial and technical innovation in IUKL and other institutions of higher learning.
6. Inna Kovtunenko, Igor Kudryashov, Hadi Bak, Andrey Narushevitch
Contextual Variability of Responsive Utterances in Blog Interaction Compared to Face-to-Face Communication
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 51-60.
Abstract: In comparison with face-to-face communication, the respondent’s contribution to the generating of the blog text is realized on a deferred basis. The blogger and his/her interlocutors’ interaction models reveal similar features with the face-to-face dialogic patterns. Compared with face-to-face communication, the dialogue in blog interaction has a more multidimensional structure. The respondent reacts with a message that contains more than one illocution, and the question-and-answer unities are characterized by a three-step scheme, since the final message is absent in the majority of contexts. On joint unfolding of the blog, the interlocutors implement many communicative strategies that are characteristic of face-to-face dialogic interaction. The system architectonics of the massage producing and transmitting plays the essential role in the implementing the effective communication models. The technical blogosphere support and the relevant communicative context largely determine the compensatory possibilities of “docking” stimuli and reactions against the general background of the whole variety of face-to-face communications. The repertoire of communicative strategies that acquire the essential importance in the process of overcoming the problems of establishing and maintaining reactions in blog communication is determined. The current aspects of designing the interfaces of blogging platforms that influence the pragmatic contexts of reactive utterances are discussed.
Russian-Speaking Media Space Anglicization in the Aspect of Linguoecology
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 61-70.
Abstract: For last two decades, it has become possible to speak not only about massive lexical borrowing, but about the real anglicization of the Russian-speaking communicative space, and this has become a factor of serious linguistic conflict, since, on the one hand, the process can be considered as inevitable and even beneficial, and on the other hand, negative and even catastrophic. If language activity is considered to be not external to a person, but essential, forming a person as a social being, then it is obvious that the language code participates in this formation. Public language practice influences the peculiarities of human phylogeny, the system of existential guidelines and value parameters, individual and social cognition. Therefore, it is extremely important to define how the very concept of anglicization is correct in relation to the modern Russian language and to evaluate the impact of cultural and linguistic contacts on the modern Russian language. The purpose of the article is to study the phenomenon of Russian-speaking media space anglicization as a linguistic conflict, taking into account the functioning of anglicisms in various communicative spheres. The source of the language material was text fragments containing multilevel anglicisms. Since the article deals with the current state of the Russian language, relevant media texts were involved in the analysis. To solve this problem, the methods of linguopragmatic and sociolinguistic interpretation of linguistic facts were used. This article contains an attempt to answer these global questions (in the context of modern ecological linguistics).
Western Cinematography on the Pages of the Soviet Screen Magazine of 1925−1927
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 71-96.
Abstract: The subject of Western cinema on the pages of the Soviet Screen magazine in 1925−1927 was extensive and varied. Due to rather significant creative freedoms in the Soviet Screen in 1925−1927, photographs of Western movie stars (including photos on the covers of magazines), rather neutral or even positive biographies of Hollywood and European actors and directors, notes on filming and film distribution, reviews of Western films, etc. were widely published in 1925−1927. Although, of course, there were also ideologically biased materials on the pages of this magazine.
Based on the analysis (in the context of the historical, socio-cultural and political situation, etc.) of the first years of the existence of the Soviet Screen magazine (1925−1927), the authors came to the conclusion that materials on Western cinema during this period can be divided into the following types:
- ideologized articles emphasizing criticism of bourgeois cinema and its harmful influence on the audience (this included materials on censorship and perception of Western films by the Soviet public);
- biographies and creative portraits of Western actors and directors (often neutrally or positively evaluating these filmmakers);
- reviews of Western films (often positive);
- reviews of Western national cinematographies (here, as a rule, criticism of bourgeois cinematography was combined with a positive assessment of works and trends ideologically acceptable to the USSR);
- articles about Western newsreels (with approaches similar to reviews of national cinemas);
- articles about foreign film technology, studios and cinemas (as a rule, ideologically neutral, containing calls to adopt technically advanced Western experience, in particular, sound film technology);
- short informational materials about events in foreign cinema, about everyday details of the life of movie stars.
9. Valerii Muzykant, Elena Burdovskaya, Elizaveta Muzykant, Munadhil Abdul Muqsith
Digital Threats and Challenges to Netizens Generation Media Education (Indonesian Case)
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 97-106.
Abstract: This article aims to explain how the threats and challenges to netizens generation are increasingly massive after the catastrophic COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Social restrictions have forced people to work at home, and this exponential migration to the digital world gives birth to new threats and challenges for netizens. There needs to be an effort to measure the digital competencies that netizens must have in order not to become victims or actors of cyber threat disruption. Concerns about the future of netizens generation welfare because technological developments have become a digital deficit, namely people's cognitive abilities will be challenged in various ways including their capacity to think analytically, memory, focus, creativity, reflection, and mental resilience. We currently live in a culture promoting attention-deficit disorder due to hyperconnectivity. There needs to be a conscious effort to provide awareness to master digital literacy competencies in an effort to defend the country. Indonesian school for nine years does not guarantee a person has digital competence. Digital literacy should be included in the early childhood to the higher education curriculum. The spirit of having this competence is to become a citizen following the norms of Pancasila as an Indonesian foundational philosophical theory and ideology.
Media Sociology Theoretical Concepts in the Cinema Art Journal: XXI Century
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 107-138.
Abstract: The authors of sociological articles in Cinema Art journal have managed to identify the main trends characteristic of the 21st century through a thorough analysis of the film process:
- the system of state support for film production in Russia began to have a negative impact on the situation with film distribution: the Ministry of Culture's financing of only the end result – film production – was reduced to a control and regulatory process, to the implementation of an economic function in the interests of a narrow circle of film producers, who make money from (almost) gratuitous state financial support in the film production process; producers do not care at all about the artistic quality or the distribution fate of the films;
- the Russian media's reliance on sensationalism, scandals, crime, vulgarity, etc. (in the pursuit of audience ratings) is palpable;
- a content analysis of stories from highly-rated media formats allows us to identify the following system of content attitudes for the perception of media texts: the danger and aggressiveness of the surrounding world; the need to live for today; the sphere of a person's private life becomes a material that can arouse enormous interest in the mass audience, etc;
- at the same time, the demand of a significant part of the mass audience for the producers of media texts is different: show us society in such a way that we would like to live in it;
- Russia (almost) does not have an artistically trained audience, so entertainment media texts predominate;
- the media not only inform, educate, and entertain; the media are a powerful tool for shaping millions of people's tastes, social samples, patterns, feelings, attitudes, ideology, and so on, and ultimately, national consciousness;
- the majority of Russian television viewers today make up approximately two-thirds of the urban population and unite older, less educated groups (this is the most numerous and permanent audience, dependent on television in terms of information, values, ideology) and relatively younger contingents, peripheral in the volume and nature of resources, in the type of orientations. They are characterized by a relatively low level of education, a small amount of their own financial resources, because of the dependence on more accessible and cheaper television;
- against this background there is an increase in the volume and projects of television series production, including Russian online platforms; this production is largely subject to the following stereotypes: characters' feelings are presented in close-up, without half-tones; key scenes contain suspense; the intrigue is tense and based on fairy-folklore stories; socio-cultural and historical, patriotic significance of the theme;
- Russian viewers' trust in these kinds of media texts is caused by their desire to return: from the disunity of recent years to unity, to the values of kindness and mutual assistance; from individual success to that "common" that continues the work of fathers and grandfathers; from the feeling of Russia's "second-rate" to its paramountcy, to the multiplication of its wealth;
- against this background, the Internet has significantly transformed the media: a substantial segment of the youth audience has formed, which (almost) has no contact with television, but is in the field of social networks and other products of modern information technology; the most active representatives of this audience become the authors of media texts, many of which, being very successful, attract advertisers.
Children’s Magazines in the Media Education System (Content Audit)
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 139-147.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of involving children of preschool and primary school age in the sphere of media education. How does the consumption of media content affect the formation of a reading culture and the related interest of 7-12 year old children in knowledge? This aspect, in our opinion, requires careful study and reflection. In the existing studies of media preferences of the new audience, as a rule, the focus is on the age segment from 12 to 20 years and older. The peculiarities of content consumption by younger children remain practically unexplored, while practice shows that “immersion” in the media environment and contact with gadgets in a child begins much earlier – even at an unconscious age, that is, from one and a half years. Particular attention in this article is paid to such a resource of media education as children's magazines that offer new, entertaining, popular science content and a special digital reading model. This article presents the results of a study whose purpose was to determine the key characteristics of the functioning of popular science magazines for children in the digital environment, taking into account the changed practices of media education and media consumption.
“Enemy Number One” in the Soviet and American Movies Suring the Cold War
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 148-153.
Abstract: Aspect-Press publishing house published a collective monograph “Enemy number One” in the Symbolic Politics of the Cinematographies of the USSR and the USA during the Cold War”. In this regard, the authors of the book thinks that Soviet and American cinematic images of "enemy number one" had many similarities, and the book noted parallelism in various aspects of creating these images. There were also significant differences: 1) in the United States, the opposition to the USSR was more rigid; 2) the policy of macropolitical identity pursued by the cinematographers of the USSR and the USA was based on different principles: class and national, respectively (this led to the production of images of “good Americans” as a necessary component of Soviet anti-Americanism); 3) Soviet cinema as a whole was characterized by a more balanced and cautious attitude towards representations of the main geopolitical rival; 4) American cinema created a more one-dimensional image of the enemy, while Soviet cinema created a more one-dimensional image of “Us”; 5) finally, the film images of "enemy number one" had different meanings for the American and Soviet audiences. For American viewers, the USSR, in all likelihood, was not only the main rival and the main threat, but also the embodiment of absolute evil; in this aspect, nothing could compete with the images of the "Reds". As for the Soviet film audience of the Cold War, Nazi Germany was still “enemy number one” for them; in terms of emotional intensity, films dedicated to America are incomparable with the best films about the Great Patriotic War, such as The Fate of a Man, The Cranes Are Flying, The Ballad of a Soldier.
13. Elizabeth G. Rojas-Estrada, Rosa García-Ruiz, Ignacio Aguaded
Media Competence in the Curriculum from Latin American Countries: A Systematic Review
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 154-170.
Abstract: The objective of this systematic review is to characterize scientific production on media competence (MC) in the curriculum of 33 countries in Latin America, starting with the analysis of four dimensions: geographical-temporal distribution, conceptual configuration, methodology, and the main curricular experiences and conclusions. After the identification and selection of the literature following the PRISMA protocol, 32 studies conducted between January, 2012, and December, 2021, were identified in the Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, ERIC (ProQuest), Dialnet (Plus) and Redalyc databases, after the application of the inclusion criteria. Among the findings, the following can be underlined: 1) there was a predominance of studies whose objective was to determine the presence of MC in the curriculum; 2) none of the countries had a course whose main objective was MC, nevertheless, the widespread presence of its dimensions suggests its inclusion as a cross-curricular component; 3) the region lacks studies centered on initial education, adult education, and the curricular basis of education for indigenous people. For this, opportunities must be offered to address future studies, projects, and curricular proposals that guarantee the development of critical, operational, and social competences, to face the socio-cultural demands and phenomena of the new media system.
14. Frans Sayogie, Ika Amalia, Nabilah Raisa, Pasha Sabila
The Construction of Feminist Movement Culture for Tackling Casual Sexism on Twitter
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 171-178.
Abstract: This study investigates the phenomena of casual sexism that goes undetected in several tweets, comments, and other forms on Twitter and its relation to feminist movement culture. The study aims to analyze the tweet, comments, or texts that contain casual sexism and examine the data by looking at the feminist movement culture to prevent the existence of casual sexism on social media. The theory of feminism, which is formed from several feminist movements connected to attempts to eradicate gender-based discrimination and prejudice that mostly affects women daily, is used in this study. The result shows that, the feminist movement culture has a big role in realizing gender equality not only in society but also in social media. From several tweets containing casual sexism, it was found that each of these accounts voiced their opinion regarding the casual sexism phenomenon they encountered. In conclusion, Twitter has become a platform for many people to express themselves and voice opinions through writing and images. The data was collected in the form of texts, comments, and tweets on Twitter. Furthermore, whether intentionally or unintentionally, the feminist movement exists and keeps expanding in order to achieve gender equality and take steps to prevent casual sexism.
Means of Emotional Impact on the Audience in User Media Content
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 179-189.
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to try to specify the means of emotional impact that modern publishers use in user-generated content. Based on the material of the analysis, the key means of emotional impact on the audience were identified: the principle of exoticism, tempo-rhythm failure, archetypization of images, infotainment, text metaphorization, assimilated symbols and nostalgic images. The results of the study prove the fact that video bloggers use almost all means of emotional impact that are typical for television programs, but submodalities are the most effective means of attracting and retaining attention in video blogging.
The conclusion is made that video bloggers use both the means of emotional impact on the audience already known to traditional media and specific ways of keeping the audience's attention: aggressive announcement, a special approach to creating their own image, shocking the audience, active work with the sound range, the use of graphic elements that are not motivated by the content, non-existent sounds, playing with time. In the analyzed video content, the significant role of interactivity elements is noted, which have a strong emotional impact on the audience and form a stable community, turning casual viewers into the category of regular subscribers.
Media Educational Potential of the Television Industry: Towards the Conceptualization of the Media Communication Category
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie). 2023. 19(1): 190-202.
Abstract: The article presents the conceptual model of media education of the television industry in the context of media communication. A set of methods such as interpretive analysis, comparative analysis, case-study are used in this research. The authors go by such basic categories as act, potency and potential. Due to its multy-paradigmal origin, the category of media educational potential of the television industry is considered from the view of interdisciplinarity. The authors refer to the achievements in social and humanitarian sciences and also in physical and engineering ones. The category of media educational potential of the television industry is put into the scientific discourse according to conducted study. This category is the complex of technical means of the company and the proficiency of television workers that are applied to train the staff members and to form media culture of the audience with developed communicative skills and high-leveled media competence. It is defined that the actors of the television industry are especially interested in improving media literacy of their audience to deal with the problem of fakes and post-truth, thus creating the environmental media. The actors of the television industry will be able to form media culture of modern society by improving the audience’s media literacy.