Abstract: In the article it is considered the net on-line associations, which can be interpreted as a new form of sociality from the point of view of structure-functional characteristics of the net on-line societies, of organizational forms of the net on-line societies as factors of self-organization and self-management of the net on-line societies. The main research goal of this article is to study the self-management of online communities, which, in our opinion, is based on a new type of social subjectness – virtual subjectness on the coordination of network community relations, their horizontal self-organization and fundamental trans-borderness as well as on such specific forms of global information – communication interaction, as matrix-cellular network links between the actors, members of network communities which expresses their decentralization. The main thesis of this article is the following: a lot of networked communities are a form of information society manifestation, i.e. a new kind of sociality, digital, virtual, information and communication sociality, which self-organize and self-manage. One of the conclusions is that a poly-haul structure is typical for multiple networked communities in which each node (cell) is connected by a number of information highways while each information highway includes a multitude of alternative logistic vectors of actual and virtual information interaction.
Abstract: The article is devoted to verbal crimes, the qualification of which requires the cooperation of lawyers and linguists. Linguists are directly involved into qualification of verbal crimes such as conspiracy, incitement, threat, insult, etc. The use of language always contains the potential of "natural insult", a violation of conventional rules. This violation effects not the same perlocutionary result. The legal definition of insult is essentially an appeal to linguistic flair. Insult is mostly associated with the use of a particular obscene (invective) lexicon. Any media text that contains allegations about people or institutions can be challenged in court, that is, it can be considered as an insult. Therefore, any media text that is not initially intended as a conflict can cause a conflict. This is supported by the language itself. The specificity of the studied problem area led to the hermeneutic approach, focused on interpretation and explanation; the method of linguistic deduction and induction. Interpretative approach, based on the assumption that the values do not exist in isolation, are not contained in words and sentences, not extracted from them, but understood by the recipient on the basis of the speech features and context, was extremely relevant.
Abstract: The article is devoted to a hermeneutic analysis of English-language feature films about
university students. For this purpose, the article presents an interdisciplinary review of scientific
publications on the problem under study, investigates the results of scientific works of researchers
in the field of cultural studies, sociology, film criticism, and media criticism. The analysis is based
on scientific works written by C. Bazalgette (Bazalgette, 1995), A. Silverblatt (Silverblatt, 2001),
U. Eco (Eco, 1998, 2005) and the key concepts of media education: “media agencies”, “media
categories”, “media technologies”, “media languages”, “media representations”, “media audiences”.
The study outlines the main trends and transformational processes that occurred during the
development of English-language films. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the main
stereotypes presented in audiovisual media texts, key story models characteristic for different
development stages of cinematographic art of the 20th – 21st century, representative models of the
most typical characters in terms of ideology, value and life orientations, etc.
Abstract: In the course of the hermeneutic analysis of the audiovisual media text, the author draws the following conclusions: 1) Western media took several decades to legalize non-traditional sexual orientations in general and in the school environment, in particular; 2) comedy drama Love, Simon (2018) is the pioneer film produced by a major Hollywood studio, featuring a gay protagonist being an underage school student; 3) homosexuality of the protagonist is presented by the film authors with the maximum degree of attractiveness for the audience (the synthesis of genres of comedy and melodrama, a charismatic performance, storyline following the key recipes of the most popular films on the school theme of the past), which provided impressive box office success; 4) the positive feedback of the American media critics on the film illustrates that political correctness of the Western society now extends not only to a tolerant attitude towards homosexuality among adults, but also among schoolchildren: this is eloquently expressed by the low age rating assigned to this the film (PG13); 5) the film Love, Simon contains signs of propaganda of non-traditional sexual orientation among minors, which formally falls under the Russian law No. 135-FZ (2013).
Abstract: Analysis of the development of mass media education in the CIS countries showed that the
main sections of the contents of the media education program (the existence of a section depends
on the age and professional status of the audience) can be presented in the following way: the place
and role, media and media education functions in the modern society, types and genres, media
languages; basic terms, concepts related to media culture; historical stages of development of
media culture in the world; analysis and evaluation of the functioning of media and media texts of
different types and genres in the socio-cultural and ideological contexts; technologies of creation
and distribution of media texts of various kinds and genres. Areas of application of such programs
are: schools, secondary special educational institutions, universities, advanced training courses,
additional education institutions and leisure centers; distant media education courses aimed at
various population groups; independent (continuous/lifelong) media education, for example,
through Internet sites. Modern models of media education in the CIS countries (with all the
diversity of age and professional whole groups of the population) contain diagnostic, contenttargeted
and effective components.
Thereat, the author of the article believes that the CIS countries should not build the
development of mass media education of their citizens based on confrontation and ideological
propaganda. Thematical units of media education syllabi should evenly give the audience an idea
that there is no single supreme democratic state in the world with ideally objective mass media.
That is why the basis of media education activity must be sociocultural concepts (including, of
course, analytical and practical components) rather than ideological ones that will allow the
audience to comprehensively master the ambiguous world of media culture.
Abstract: In modern science, attempts to measure media literacy / media competence are made from time to time. However, those who try to do it usually employ different theoretical premises, interpret phenomenon under consideration in their own ways, and, as a result, use various criteria for evaluations. Based on the analysis of more than hundred most oft-quoted (both in foreign and Russian scholarship) definitions of media literacy, the author offers his own conception of the term and puts forward the way it can be measured. While doing so, he stresses the importance of a political segment of media literacy, i.e. the ability to critically analyze and check credibility of politics-related media texts.
Through anonymous questionnaire method, ninety-seven 17-26-aged students of Saratov National Research State University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky were surveyed. Among other things, the questionnaire implied the necessity to answer questions on the text respondents were asked to read, as well as to form their attitudes to fifteen statements listed (rather agree with each of them or not). Points got by every student were transformed into percent. The medium media literacy level of all respondents and medium figures for different genders, ages, and majors were calculated. In closing, possible directions of further research on the issue were outlined.
Abstract: This article describes the experience of teaching media within the humanistic educational framework as one of the pressing questions in high-school pedagogy. The article is based on the long personal experience of the author, who, starting with teaching cinema studies to students, gradually developed media culture and media education school within the culture studies framework. Empirical basis of the research is provided by the prolonged experience of the Chair of Cultural Studies and Leisure Studies of Ural Federal University. After analysing prospective trends in the development of contemporary Russian media education through the combined theory-and-practice approach, the author describes “media studies” as a priority field in humanistic higher education. Teaching media within bachelor's and master’s programs in “Culture Studies” and “Socio-Cultural Work” allows us to solve several pedagogical tasks at once: 1) increase student’s media competency; 2) foster the development of personal media culture; 3) teach students skill required to create their own media texts; 4) supports professional training of managers in socio-cultural field (including audio-visual field). Our experience of introducing media studies in humanistic curriculum produce results which demonstrate that this educational approach not only fosters the development of an all-rounded personality but also provides competitive advantage for the prospective professionals.
Abstract: The article presents the content and methods of conducting a study course on teaching journalism, which is developed for the master's degree level of education. The author uses his experience as a Professor at Saint Petersburg State University. He argues with those colleagues who believe that teaching journalism can be limited to teaching practical instrumental skills. The concept of the described course is based on the model of journalism education as a systemic phenomenon, which includes a comprehensive social and humanitarian background at the university level, the formation of advanced professional ideology and labor technique. Structurally, the article is built in the form of in detail characteristics of the factors that have a decisive influence on the organization and methods of training. The author draws attention to the following factors: normative (officially established standards of education), personnel (team and qualification of teachers), professional and practical (industry requests), audience (characteristics of students), and organizational and methodological (organization of the educational process). None of them can be considered dominant while each one dictates some parameters of teaching that need to be taken into account.
Abstract: Democratization in speech have not only broadened the ways of language expression, manifestations of linguistic individuality, but have led to many negative phenomena. This is typical not only for marginal communication, but also for political discourse, especially – for the media, which has a huge impact on the speech behavior of society. Nowadays, the concept of ethical and linguistic standard have been actualized, it is developed not only in the framework of ecological linguistics, but also in legal linguistics. In the context of ethical and speech norms, it is important to note the words usage is inseparable from the categories of ethics. These new phenomena are due to the combination of all the circumstances of socio-political and cultural life. It is impossible to give any recommendations in the field of regulation in general and ethical and linguistic norms in particular without taking them into account. The methodology of the work is based on a combination of panchronic and diachronic approaches to the language. The leading method is extrapolation of language theories, which arose in the same historical conditions, to the conditions of different historical reality, synthesis of interpretative and comparative approaches to the material, component-semantic and contextual analysis, composite analysis.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the specificity of the influence of the film criticism on
the perception, understanding and evaluation of the film by the audience. The authors consider
film criticism in the context of the phenomena of media competence, media education and media
enlightenment and designate media-enlightenment potential of the film criticism. This potential
lies in the fact that film criticism can form post-receptive activity of the audience and the
development of the visual culture. In this context, the article discusses the specificity of using the
notions of media education and media enlightenment in the discourse of modern media analysts,
as well as the problems of the functioning of contemporary Russian film criticism in the future,
in the perspective of opportunities for implementing media-education enlightment tasks.
In order to identify the specificity of impact of film criticism on the interpretation of the film
by the viewers, the authors conduct an experiment. Its conditions imply the division of the
participants into two groups, one of which before the film is offered the text of the film review of
the authoritative film critic. After viewing, participants in both groups take test tasks. On the basis
of a comparative content analysis of the results of test tasks, the authors come to the conclusion
that a preliminary acquaintance with the text of the film review predetermines the focus of
attention and evaluative judgments of the recipients, forms their metadiscourse thesaurus.
The presence of these characteristics can be regarded as the actualization of the mediaenlightenment
potential of the film criticism and as the indicator of the formation of media
competence of the audience.
11. Galina Melnik, Konstantin Pantserev, Natalia Sveshnikova
Content analysis of media texts covering crises on practical seminars on political psychology as a necessary condition of the upgrade of the students’ communicative culture (on the example of chemical attack in ghouta in 2013)
Media Education (Mediaobrazovanie), 2018, 58(3): 108-118.
Abstract: Content analysis is one of the most frequently used methods that shows significant results when applied during studies on political psychology for students enrolled in the departments of political sciences, psychology, international relations, journalism and applied communications in St. Petersburg State University as all these departments widely use media materials for study purposes. Content analysis is used for studying sources that are invariant in their structure or contents, but as a text form are organized chaotically. The article explains the method of content analysis of Russian and foreign media texts covering the events in Syria after the chemical attack on the citizens of Ghouta (2013). Suggested method may be used for studying political events that are conflictogenic by their nature. Authors come to the conclusion that content analysis of media texts is a crucial component of developing critical thinking and media expertise in students. An important part of the training is mastering the key concepts, allowing to understand the significant subjects in the media producing, broadcasting or consuming one or another content.
Abstract: The article presents the results of the hermeneutic analysis of present-day British and American Internet sites about school and university. The research objective was to analyze and characterize the cultural and historical contexts, to define the role and value of the school and university topic in the mirror of Internet sites of the English-speaking countries in terms of social studies, culture studies, anthropology and media education. The author of the article concludes that the analyzed British and American Internet media texts about school and university: 1) tell about a crisis and a controversial policy of reforming the national education system in the English-speaking countries; 2) are the expression of the media texts authors’ civic views, seeking to raise public awareness of problem zones of the contemporary national education system; 3) present a wide range of urgent topics and plots about school and university education, closely related to the themes and plots of English-language television programmes, documentary and feature films; 4) use a variety of genre modifications to represent reality (official sites of the state, sites of educational institutions, informational and thematic sites, forums, blogs, personal teachers’ and principals’ sites, sites of educators, journals and newspapers, etc.); 5) realistically reflect both positive (equal educational opportunities for every citizen, struggle against racism and intolerance, tolerance promotion, creating a safe school environment, education reforms, inclusive education, international cooperation in education, use of new information technologies in the learning process, monitoring and improving the quality of educational services, etc.) and negative (budget cuts in education, bullying and cyberbullying, school shootings, teacher strikes, lack of teachers and professional burnout of teachers) aspects of social, political, cultural and educational life spheres in the English-speaking countries; 6) emphasize the dominant idea of national identity and community cohesion and integration, cultivating national values across the curriculum as a core strategy for the modern system of education in the English-speaking countries.
Abstract: Nowadays there is a growing necessity of highly qualified and flexible professionals. They have to possess a good knowledge of foreign languages to be able to communicate with colleagues from different countries. Thus, teachers of foreign language are in constant search for the most effective ways of training. In this paper, the authors analyze the process of teaching foreign (English) language to Master students and identify the most effective ways of teaching communication in professional sphere. The study use a critical analysis of the literature on the problem, monitoring of the process of teaching foreign language, generalization of the authors’ own experience of teaching. The authors define an important role of modern media in the foreign language teaching and develop a programme of teaching the English language to Master students using media educational environment.
Abstract: The modern development of digital technologies, the transfer of communicative interaction on most socially important issues into a network online space, initiates the growth of citizens' appeals to various forums, blogs, social networks, etc. The availability and depersonalization of the network online space open unlimited opportunities for participants to develop a media reality. The authors set the goal of the study - to determine the key characteristics of educational process participant interaction in the context of a new media reality, to analyze the specifics and the themes of their appeals within the network online space. The main method of research was a qualitative analysis of Internet forum media texts devoted to the discussion of school education. In the course of the study, it was found that the trends of a new media reality development are ambivalent ones. Positive changes include the increase of contact frequency, a higher level of parent involvement in school education issue solution, the increase of awareness about the problems of their children. However, for many parents, the search for problem solutions is shifting from real communication practices with teachers and administration to artificially formed social groups. The opportunities for the replication and dissemination of one's own opinions through the online space is a testimony to their own competence for parents, an indirect factor of a teacher authority reduction. The authors revealed that in the context of a new media reality, the criticism of teacher actions, their professional and moral qualities is increased more and more. The increase of media competence level among Internet users, the development of information selection and analysis skills will contribute to the development of media text critical perception.
Abstract: The subject of this article is the specifics of feeding the information which is topical for the whole society in regional newspapers; in particular it’s asymmetry towards the data of the central press. The authors carry out a comparative analysis of the content of media representations of the political event (Navalny’s march) in the federal and Khabarovsk print media, which made it possible to reveal a number of formal and substantial differences in the media image of the event, to fix new media phenomena. The theme of media representation is relevant for the theory and practice of journalism, and the transformation in the world and national information space (information warfare, loss of the presumption of information and truth by the world journalism) make this topic even more significant. The research methodology refers to a discursive approach, the authors attempt to analyze the headline complex of journalistic materials, identify the main semantic units of texts, and fix some speech techniques for creating a media image. The novelty of the work lies in the following provisions. The authors go beyond the media-centered approach and in the conclusion analyze the situation of mastering the text by the readership, highlighting two types of audiences according to the criterion of “information literacy”. As an explanatory principle, the authors’ notion of “a zero signs” is introduced to explain the preterition of the media with respect to certain facts. On this basis it is possible to classify different types of information consumers in the future. The empirical study makes it possible to record differences in the coverage of the event by federal and Khabarovsk print media, and also to reveal interesting phenomena of media representation, in particular, “smoothing out”, “suppression”, etc., which have a high level of heuristics. The study deserves attention, gives an increment of new information and raises problematic questions of theoretical and methodological plan.
Abstract: The article researches the influence of the original English film title to forming the genre and contents presuppositions of the viewers. It’s very important for studying the process of choice of the film to view from the cognitive, translation, advertising, commercial perspectives. The empirical research with Russian-speaking recipients was conducted which aimed at investigating the process of creating the presuppositions to genre and contents of the film only perceiving and translating the title of the film and then the process of correcting the opinions after watching the trailer of the film. Understanding the title faces some barriers connected as the research shows with the direct literal interpretation of the title which happens due to several factors: lack of linguistic and cultural background by the viewers belonging to another culture and due to failure of the original title because of its inadequateness, ambiguity or inexpressiveness. These barriers are fully or partly leveled by the trailer. The sufficient level of destroying misunderstanding depends on the linear development of the trailer plot and enhancing the wish to view the film is supported by a complex parallel and spiral development of plot lines in a trailer.